|Scientific Name||Female Phlebotominae|
|Size||8.5mm in length|
|Colour||Sandfly has a brownish colour during the day, it has hairs that are close to each other that coat it.|
|Description||The wings are “V” shaped. The two wings have dense hairs and
increases pigmentation patterns. The large compound eyes are more or
less contiguous above the bases of the 15-segmented antennae. The
pedicel of the males' antennae houses the Johnston's organ. The
mouthparts are well-developed with cutting teeth on elongated mandibles
in the proboscis, adapted for blood-sucking in females, but not in
males. The thorax extends slightly over the head, and the abdomen is
nine-segmented and tapered at the end.
|Habitat||They often lodge in shrubs or the thick layer of dead
leaves that naturally covers the ground. Most no-see-ums can’t fly more
than106.68m from their breeding area, so if they are causing a problem
one can be able to run away from them.
Commonly found at beaches, wetlands creek and lakebeds, it is believed that sand fly stays within 106.68 meters of its breeding ground.
|Lifecycle||Different from most biting Diptera, sand fly has a terrestrial
development rather than aquatic. Although there have been relatively few
successful attempts to identify breeding sites in nature, eggs are laid
in soil rich in organic matter and the larvae pass through four instars
before pupation and adult emergence.
The eggs are elongated oval-shaped, pale at first and they become dark due to exposure to air with a solitary black “eye spot”. The larvae emerge through a J-shaped fissure and don’t have legs and white like with a dark head capsule. Those of the first instar can be characterized by the presence of two caudal bristles, all subsequent instars bearing four. Fourth instar larvae also have a prominent sclerite on the dorsum of the penultimate segment. The pupae are golden brown in colour and are affixed to the surface of the substrate in which they developed by the final larval exuvium. Just before emergence the wings and eyes become black. Male sand flies emerge about 24 h before females, allowing their external genitalia time to rotate 180° to the correct position for mating before females have emerged. The time from oviposition to adult emergence at ambient temperature is around 4-6 weeks. Some Palaearctic species diapause as larvae
|Disease Transmitted||Sandfly fever
|Symptoms||Fever, malaise, eye pain, and headache occurring mainly during the
warm weather. Acute symptoms last for 2-4 days, but if the fever is
severe it takes a week.
|Type of Damage||Phlebotomines feed on pools of blood by suck blood from a tiny wound
they make in the skin of human.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (oriental sore). At the site where a sandfly has bitten, an ulcer forms. At some instances a parasite is found in the area of a wound in some species, it also infects the lymphatic system, causing skin wounds along the lymphatic ducts.
|Sources / Breeding||Sandflies breed in safe places which are rich in organic matter e.g.
cracks, rodent burrows, animal shelters and privies. They are nocturnal.
Sandflies mostly breed in salt mashes; nevertheless other species breed in fresh water areas and tree holes.Larvae of sandflies are found in mud, sand and debris around the ends of the ponds, creeks springs, lakes, in tree holes or in slimy covered bark. They swim freely in water and they are normally found in twigs and leave trash. The larvae pupate on floating debris. The adult female requires blood to mature the eggs. Males do not bite.
|Prevention||Insect repellent should be used on skin, so as to prevent the
sandfly transmitted diseases. The use of mosquito netting sprayed with
permethrin is recommended. Good sanitation and housekeeping prevents
sandflies from lodging in the house.
Insecticide can be sprayed on outdoor breeding sites.
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